22 March 2010

What is hydrocephalus / hidrosefalus ??




I. Definition
Hydrocephalus is a pathological disorder of the brain that result in increased cerebrospinal fluid with or had a raised intracranial pressure, so there is widening of the ventricles. Ventricular dilation is due to an imbalance between production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Always be secondary hydrocephalus, as a result of disease or brain damage. The existence of these disorders cause a large head and suture. The suture widening and the crown.


II. Epidemiology
Incidence of hydrocephalus between 0,2-4 every 1000 births. The incidence of congenital hydrocephalus is 0,5-1,8 on every 1000 births and 11% -43% stenosis caused by cerebral aqueductus. There was no significant difference in incidence for both sexes, also in terms of racial differences. Hydrocephalus can occur at any age. In Adolescents and adults more often caused by Toxoplasmosis. Infantile hydrocephalus; 46% is due to abnormalities in brain development, 50% for subaraknoid hemorrhage and meningitis, and less than 4% due to posterior fossa tumors.


III. Etiology
Hydrocephalus occurs when there is blockage of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSL) in one place between the formation of CSL in the ventricular system and the absorption in subarachnoid space. Due to blockage, dilation occurs above room CSL. Theoretical formation of CSL too much with an abnormal absorption rate will lead to hydrocephalus, but the clinic is extremely rare. The cause of the CSL flow blockage often occurs in Infants and children is:


1) Congenital abnormalities (Congenital)
a. Stenosis akuaduktus Sylvii
b. Spina bifida and Cranium bifida
c. Dandy-Walker syndrome
d. Arachnoids Cysts and vascular anomalies


2) Infection
Infection can occur meningen attachment. In pathological tissue thickening seen araknoid around piamater and sisterna basalis and other areas. Other causes are infection Toxoplasmosis.


3) Neoplasm
Hydrocephalus by mechanical obstruction can occur at any place of the flow of CSL. Most children who cause obstruction or IV ventricle akuaduktus Sylvii last part of a glioma is usually derived from the cerebellum, clogging the front of the ventricle due kraniofaringioma III.


4) Bleeding
Bleeding before and after birth in the brain, can cause fibrosis leptomeningen especially in the basal region of the brain, other than due to blockage of the blood of the organization's own

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